ARMED FORCES DIVISION

Looking back to Peacekeeping History

United Nations Peacekeeping Operations commenced in 1948 when the Security Councilauthorized the deployment of UN Military Observers tomonitor and maintain the ceasefire during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. The operation was named as the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO). Since then, United Nations has deployed 67 missions across the globe, 15 of which are ongoing.  By this time millions of military personnel including UN police and other civilians from more than 120 countriesparticipated in UN peacekeeping operations.

Picture: Monogram of UNTSO

Photo: UN Peacekeeping forces in one of the earlier missions,

Cyprus(UNFICYP) 1967 ( UN Photo)

In its early days, UN missions consisted of unarmed military observers and lightly armed troops with primarily monitoring, reporting and confidence-building roles.  Peacekeeping was primarily limited to maintaining ceasefires and stabilizing situations, providing crucial support for political efforts to resolve conflict by peaceful means. First UN Emergency Force (UNEF I)deployed in 1956 to resolve the Suez Crisis is the first armed peacekeeping operation. In the 1960s and 1970s, the UN established short-term missions in the Dominican Republic, West New Guinea (West Irian) and Yemen. Later on UN started longer term deployments in Cyprus, the Middle East and  in Lebanon.  In 1988, UN peacekeepers were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

With the change of dynamics of world politics and war trends the peacekeeping operations are getting more challenging and demanding every day. With all the challenges   peacekeeping operations will continue to strive to facilitate the political process, protect civilians, assist in the disarmament, demobilization and reintegrationof former combatants; support the organization of elections, protect and promote human rights and assist in restoring the rule of law.

Past Peacekeeping Operations Around The World

All past UN Peacekeeping Operations that have taken place since 1948 are appended continent wise:

Africa

  • United Nations Angola Verification Mission I (UNAVEM I)
  • United Nations Angola Verification Mission II (UNAVEM II)
  • United Nations Angola Verification Mission III (UNAVEM III)
  • United Nations Aouzou Strip Observer Group (UNASOG)
  • United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR)
  • United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE)
  • United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL)
  • United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic (MINURCA)
  • United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT)
  • United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA)
  • United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL)
  • United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone (UNOMSIL)
  • United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR)
  • United Nations Operation in Burundi (ONUB)
  • United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (MINUCI)
  • United Nations Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ)
  • United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I)
  • United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II)
  • United Nations Operation in the Congo (ONUC)
  • United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC)
  • United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG)
  • UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS)

Americas

  • Mission of the Representative of the Secretary-General in the Dominican Republic (DOMREP)
  • United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti (MIPONUH)
  • United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH)
  • United Nations Observer Group in Central America (ONUCA)
  • United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL)
  • United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH)
  • United Nations Transition Mission in Haiti (UNTMIH)
  • United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA)

Asiaand the Pacific

  • United Nations Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC)
  • United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP)
  • United Nations India-Pakistan Observation Mission (UNIPOM)
  • United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT)
  • United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET)
  • United Nations Security Force in West New Guinea (UNSF)
  • United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET)
  • United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC)
  • UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT)

Europe

  • United Nations Civilian Police Support Group (UNPSG)
  • United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation in Croatia (UNCRO)
  • United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNMIBH)
  • United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP)
  • United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG)
  • United Nations Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP)
  • United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR)
  • United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (UNTAES)

Middle East

  • United Nations Emergency Force I (UNEF I)
  • United Nations Emergency Force II (UNEF II)
  • United Nations Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group (UNIIMOG)
  • United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM)
  • United Nations Observation Group in Lebanon (UNOGIL)
  • United Nations Yemen Observation Mission (UNYOM)
  • UN Supervision Mission in Syria (UNSMIS)

Ongoing Peacekeeping Operations around the World

There are currently 15 peacekeeping operations and one special political mission – the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) – led by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations.

 

Africa

  • United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO)
  • United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL)
  • United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI)
  • United Nations/African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID)
  • United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO)
  • United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA)
  • United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS)
  • United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL)

 

Americas

United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)

 

Asia

  • United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP)
  • United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA)

Middle East

 

Europe

Source: Data: www.un.org

Bangladesh in UN Peacekeeping Mission

 

 

 

Bangladesh Army started its journey in the UN peacekeeping mission in 1988 with 15 observers in UNIMOG (Iraq-Iran). Since then it is maintaining its dominance as a leading troop contributor country in UN peacekeeping. Bangladesh Armed Forces has so far participated in 54 peacekeeping missions in 40 countries. A total of 1,28,545members from Bangladesh Armed Forces have participated in the noble task of peacekeeping. A consolidated list is appended below:

Ser

Country

Name of Mission

Army

 

Navy

Air Force

Total

1

Afganistan

UNAMA

3

4

1

8

 

Afganistan -Pakistan

UNSMA/UNGOMAP

2

0

0

2

2

Angola

UNAVEM

0

0

9

9

 

 

UNAVEM III

470

9

0

479

3

Burundi

BINUB

1

5

0

6

4

Cambodia

UNAMIC / UNTAC

1002

0

0

1002

 

 

UNMLT

1

0

0

1

5

Congo

MONUC, MONUSCO

19439

359

3647

23445

6

Croatia/East Slovenia

UNTAES

17

0

0

17

 7.

East Timor

UNAMET / UNTAET / UNMISET

1311

3

71

1385

8

Ethiopia / Eritrea

UNMEE

1093

6

9

1108

9

Georga

UNOMIG

94

19

18

131

10

Haiti

UNMIH / MNF

2023

50

52

2125

11

Iraq

UNGCI

90

18

13

121

12

Iran/Iraq

UNIIMOG

31

0

0

31

13

Iraq

UNMOVIC

0

2

1

3

14

Ivory Coast

MINUCI/ONUCI/UNOCI

28594

466

634

29694

15

Kosovo

UNMIK

12

0

0

12

16

Kuwait

UNIKOM

7911

46

281

8238

17

 

Liberia

UNOMIL

129

22

0

151

Liberia

UNMIL

22932

170

52

23154

18

Mecedonia

UNPREDEP

4

0

3

7

19

Mozambique

ONUMOZ

2468

15

39

2522

20

Namibia

UNTAG

25

0

0

25

21

Rawanda

UNAMIR

990

7

15

1012

22

Sierra Leone

UNAMSIL

11908

22

14

11944

23

Somalia

UNOSOM-I

5

0

2

7

 

 

 

UNOSOM II

1967

0

0

1967

 

AMISOM

1

0

0

1

24

 Sudan

UNMIS

8007

686

78

8771

25

South Sudan

UNMISS

1511

6

2

1519

26

Tajikistan

UNMOT

34

3

3

40

27

Uganda / Rwanda

UNOMUR

20

0

0

20

28

Western Sahara

MINURSO

200

26

11

237

29

Yugoslavia (Former)

UNPROFOR / UNMOP

1381

18

24

1423

30

Sierra Leone

UNIOSIL

3

0

0

3

31

CAR & Chad

MINURCAT

9

1

47

57

32

Darfur

UNAMID

2243

43

56

2342

33

Lebanon

UNIFIL

4

1618

7

1629

34

West Africa

UNOWA

2

0

0

2

35

(North Sudan)

UNISFA

0

0

0

0

36

UNSOA (Nairobi)

UNSOA

1

0

0

1

37

Syria

UNSMIS

16

1

1

18

38

Mali

MINUSMA

2660

244

128

3032

39.

CAR

MINUSCA

836

5

1

842

40.

Somalia

UNSOM

1

0

0

1

41.

African Union

UNOUA

1

0

0

1

42.

UNHQ

UNDPKO

0

1

0

1

 

 

TOTAL

119452

3875

5218

128545

Source:  AFD (Foreign Affairs Section) Archive

Ongoing Peacekeeping Missions Participated by Bangladesh

Presently  6089 UN peacekeepers from Bangladesh Army, Navy and Air Force are deployed in 13 ongoing UNPKOs in 10 countries. Within that more than 4900 personnel from Bangladesh Army are now deployed in various contingents or as Staff Officers/Military Observers in 13 peacekeeping missions. Bangladesh Navy has its ships and water crafts deployed in UNIFIL (Lebanon) and UNMISS (South Sudan). The Air Force has its helicopters and fixed wing aircraft in MONUSCO (DR Congo) and MINUSTAH (Haiti). A good number of officers from Bangladesh Armed Forces are also working in UNDPKO as well.  Summary of total deployment is appended below:

Ser

Country

Mission

Army

Navy

Air Force

Total

1.

DR Congo

MONUSCO

1360

15

378

1753

2.

Cote d,Ivoire

UNOCI

245

5

7

257

3.

Liberia

UNMIL

269

0

1

270

4.

Lebanon

UNIFIL

0

285

1

286

5.

South Sudan

UNMISS

285

204

02

491

6.

Sudan (Darfur)

UNAMID

372

2

6

380

7.

Western Sahara

MINURSO

24

2

2

28

8.

Mali

MINUSMA

1287

04

127

1418

9.

CAR

MINUSCA

1077

6

4

1087

10.

Haiti

MINUSTAH

1

0

111

112

11.

Nepal

UNMIN

0

0

0

0

12.

Somalia

UNSOM

1

0

0

1

13.

USA (New York)

UNHQ

5

1

0

6

Total 

4926

524

639

6089

Source:  AFD (Foreign Affairs Section) Archive

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